The Role of Technology in Promoting Cultural Competence: A Comprehensive Review in Multicultural Education


  • Muqarramah Sulaiman Kurdi Universitas Islam Negeri Antasari Banjarmasin



Technology, Cultural Competence, Multicultural Education, Adaptive Technologies, Culturally Responsive Pedagogy


This study presents a comprehensive review to explore technology's multifaceted role in fostering cultural competence within multicultural education. The primary objective of this study is to address three fundamental research questions: 1) How does the integration of technology enhance cultural competence in multicultural education settings? 2) What challenges and opportunities are associated with utilizing technology to promote cultural competence in diverse educational settings? 3) How can innovative technological approaches be tailored to address specific cultural competencies in education? Adopting a library research approach, an extensive exploration of academic databases and scholarly sources was conducted to gather literature pertinent to the research questions. The descriptive analysis method was employed to synthesize and analyze the collected information, identifying key themes, differences, similarities, and weaknesses among the diverse sources. The findings from this comprehensive review revealed several significant insights. Technology integration was observed to offer opportunities such as personalized learning experiences through AI-driven tools, immersive cultural experiences via Virtual Reality (VR), and global connectivity fostering cross-cultural collaboration. However, challenges like the digital divide, biases in technological tools, language barriers, ethical concerns regarding data privacy, and pedagogical integration shortcomings were highlighted. Moreover, the study underscores the potential of adaptive technologies, multimodal resources, culturally tailored digital content, and aligning technological interventions with culturally responsive pedagogy to address specific cultural competencies. The recommendations emphasize the need for teacher training, inclusive design, curation of diverse and authentic digital content, interdisciplinary collaborations, and ongoing assessment for optimizing technology's role in promoting cultural competence within multicultural education.


Afiyanti, Y. (2005). Penggunaan literatur dalam penelitian kualitatif. Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 9(1).

Aifan, H. A. (2015). SAUDI STUDENTS’ATTITUDES TOWARD USING SOCIAL MEDIA TO SUPPORT LEARNING (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas).

Anderson, M., & Perrin, A. (2017). Technology use among seniors. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center for Internet & Technology.

Asad, M. M., Naz, A., Churi, P., & Tahanzadeh, M. M. (2021). Virtual reality as pedagogical tool to enhance experiential learning: a systematic literature review. Education Research International, 2021, 1-17.

Bagir, H. (2019). Memulihkan sekolah memulihkan manusia. Noura Books.

Barton, A. C. (2013). Science learning in urban settings. In Handbook of research on science education (pp. 319-343). Routledge.

Bailenson, J. (2018). Experience on demand: What virtual reality is, how it works, and what it can do. WW Norton & Company.

Bennett, M. J. (1993). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercutural sensitivity. In R. M. Paige (Ed.), Education for the intercutural experience (pp. 21–71). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, Inc.

Berti, M. (2021). The unexplored potential of virtual reality for cultural learning. The EuroCALL Review, 29(1), 60-67.

Bicen, H., & Beheshti, M. (2022). Assessing perceptions and evaluating achievements of ESL students with the usage of infographics in a flipped classroom learning environment. Interactive Learning Environments, 30(3), 498-526.

Boyd, D., & Marwick, A. E. (2011, September). Social privacy in networked publics: Teens’ attitudes, practices, and strategies. In A decade in internet time: Symposium on the dynamics of the internet and society.

Borgman, Christine L., Peter T. Darch, Ashley E. Sands, Irene V. Pasquetto, Milena S. Golshan, Jillian C. Wallis, and Sharon Traweek. "Knowledge infrastructures in science: data, diversity, and digital libraries." International Journal on Digital Libraries 16 (2015): 207-227.

Bozkurt, A., Karadeniz, A., Baneres, D., Guerrero-Roldán, A. E., & Rodríguez, M. E. (2021). Artificial intelligence and reflections from educational landscape: A review of AI Studies in half a century. Sustainability, 13(2), 800.

Brock, A. (2009). " Who do you think you are?": Race, Representation, and Cultural Rhetorics in Online Spaces. Poroi, 6(1).

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2000). Ecological systems theory. Oxford University Press.

Calabrese Barton, A., & Berchini, C. (2013). Becoming an insider: Teaching science in urban settings. Theory Into Practice, 52(1), 21-27.

Chang, Y., Lee, S., Wong, S. F., & Jeong, S. P. (2022). AI-powered learning application use and gratification: an integrative model. Information Technology & People, 35(7), 2115-2139.

Checa, D., & Bustillo, A. (2020). A review of immersive virtual reality serious games to enhance learning and training. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 79, 5501-5527.

Chen, A. Y., Mashhadi, A., Ang, D., & Harkrider, N. (1999). Cultural issues in the design of technology‐enhanced learning systems. British Journal of Educational Technology, 30(3), 217-230.

Cheng, M. M., Lacaste, A. V., Saranza, C., & Chuang, H. H. (2021). Culturally responsive teaching in technology-supported learning environments in marine education for sustainable development. Sustainability, 13(24), 13922.

Churchill, D. (2017). Digital resources for learning. Singapore: Springer.

Cummins, J. (2005). Perspective on Trends and Possibilities Jim Cummins. Information Technology and Innovation in Language Education, 1, 105.

Cummins, J. (2021). Rethinking the education of multilingual learners: A critical analysis of theoretical concepts (Vol. 19). Multilingual Matters.

Dixon, E. (2012). Building a model for online distance courses through social media and networks. International Journal of virtual and personal learning environments (IJVPLE), 3(3), 81-94.

DiMaggio, P., Hargittai, E., Celeste, C., & Shafer, S. (2004). From unequal access to differentiated use: A literature review and agenda for research on digital inequality. Social inequality, 1, 355-400.

DiMaggio, P., Hargittai, E., Celeste, C., & Shafer, S. (2004). Digital inequality: From unequal access to differentiated use. Social inequality, 355-400.

Dreamson, N., Thomas, G., Lee Hong, A., & Kim, S. (2017). Policies on and practices of cultural inclusivity in learning management systems: perspectives of Indigenous holistic pedagogies. Higher Education Research & Development, 36(5), 947-961.

Engbers, R. A. (2020). Students' perceptions of interventions designed to foster empathy: An integrative review. Nurse Education Today, 86, 104325.

Fantini, A. E. (2007). Exploring and assessing intercultural competence.

Freire, P. (2020). Pedagogy of the oppressed. In Toward a sociology of education (pp. 374-386). Routledge.

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.

Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed (revised). New York: Continuum (pp. 356 357-358).

Fromm, J., Radianti, J., Wehking, C., Stieglitz, S., Majchrzak, T. A., & vom Brocke, J. (2021). More than experience?-On the unique opportunities of virtual reality to afford a holistic experiential learning cycle. The Internet and higher education, 50, 100804.

Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. teachers college press.

Gay, G. (2002). Culturally responsive teaching in special education for ethnically diverse students: Setting the stage. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(6), 613-629.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2, 87-105.

Garrison, D. R., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and higher education, 10(3), 157-172.

Ghanizadeh, A., Razavi, A., & Jahedizadeh, S. (2015). Technology-enhanced language learning (TELL): A review of resourses and upshots. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, 54, 73-87.

Goel, A. (2020). Ai-powered learning: making education accessible, affordable, and achievable. arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.01908.

Gupta, P., Yadav, D., & Dey, R. (2021). AI Diagnosis: Rise of AI-Powered Assessments in Modern Education Systems. Transnational Marketing Journal, 9(3), 625-633.

Hampden-Turner, C. M., & Trompenaars, F. (2008). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Yale University Press.

Hall, A. (2007). Vygotsky goes online: Learning design from a socio-cultural perspective. In Learning and socio-cultural Theory: Exploring modern Vygotskian perspectives international workshop 2007 (Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 6).

Herrington, J., Herrington, A., Mantei, J., Olney, I., & Ferry, B. (2009). Using mobile technologies to develop new ways of teaching and learning.

Hooks, B. (1996). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. Journal of Leisure Research, 28(4), 316.

Hooks, B. (2014). Teaching to transgress. Routledge.

Hrastinski, S. (2008). What is online learner participation? A literature review. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1755-1765.

Hrastinski, S. (2008). Asynchronous and synchronous e-learning. Educause quarterly, 31(4), 51-55.

Hrastinski, S. (2008). The potential of synchronous communication to enhance participation in online discussions: A case study of two e-learning courses. Information & Management, 45(7), 499-506.

Hull, G., & Scott, J. (2014). Curating and creating online: Identity, authorship, and viewing in a digital age. In Museum communication and social media (pp. 130-149). Routledge.

Hu-Au, E., & Lee, J. J. (2017). Virtual reality in education: a tool for learning in the experience age. International Journal of Innovation in Education, 4(4), 215-226.

Iskandar, A., Parnawi, A., Sagena, U., Kurdi, M. S., & Fitra, D. (2023). TRANSFORMASI DIGITAL DALAM PEMBELAJARAN. CV Literasi Nusantara Abadi.

Jaldemark, J., Hrastinski, S., Olofsson, A. D., & Öberg, L. M. (2018). Editorial introduction: Collaborative learning enhanced by mobile technologies. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(2), 201-206.

Januszewski, A., & Molenda, M. (Eds.). (2013). Educational technology: A definition with commentary. Routledge.

Jewitt, C. (2013). Multimodality and digital technologies in the classroom. In Multilingualism and multimodality (pp. 141-152). Brill.

Kellner, D. (1998). Multiple literacies and critical pedagogy in a multicultural society. Educational theory, 48(1), 103.

Khatibah, K. (2011). Penelitian kepustakaan. Iqra': Jurnal Perpustakaan dan Informasi, 5(01), 36-39.

Khosravi, H., Shum, S. B., Chen, G., Conati, C., Tsai, Y. S., Kay, J., ... & Gašević, D. (2022). Explainable artificial intelligence in education. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 3, 100074.

Kim, P., Hagashi, T., Carillo, L., Gonzales, I., Makany, T., Lee, B., & Garate, A. (2011). Socioeconomic strata, mobile technology, and education: A comparative analysis. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59, 465-486.

Kim, M. S. (2013). Technology-mediated collaborative learning environments for young culturally and linguistically diverse children: Vygotsky revisited. British Journal of Educational Studies, 61(2), 221-246.

Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2010). Learning Cultures on the Move: Where are we heading?. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 4-14.

Kukulska‐Hulme, A., Lee, H., & Norris, L. (2017). Mobile learning revolution: Implications for language pedagogy. The handbook of technology and second language teaching and learning, 217-233.

Kurdi, M. S., & Afif, Y. U. (2021). The enhancement of islamic moral values through sex education for early children in the family environment. Religio Education, 1(2), 106-116.

Kurdi, M. S. (2021). Dampak Globalisasi pada Konten dan Mata Pelajaran Pada Kurikulum di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah: Tantangan Dan Peluang. CENDEKIA: Jurnal Ilmu Sosial, Bahasa dan Pendidikan, 1(4), 32-59.

Kurdi, M. S. (2020). Inovasi Doktrin Ajaran Islam Di Masa Pandemi Untuk Generasi Digital Native. Jurnal Hawa: Studi Pengarus Utamaan Gender dan Anak, 2(2).

Kurdi, M. S., & Kurdi, M. S. (2021). Analisis Bibliometrik dalam Penelitian Bidang Pendidikan: Teori dan Implementasi. Journal on Education, 3(4), 518-537.


Kurdi, M. S., Mardiah, M., Kurdi, M. S., Usman, M. I. G., & Taslimurrahman, T. T. (2020). Speaking Activities In Madrasah Ibtidaiyah: A Meta Narrative About Character Building And Multiculturalism Point Of View. Al-Bidayah: jurnal pendidikan dasar Islam, 12(1), 55-82.

Kurdi, M. S. (2018). Madrasah Ibtidaiyah dalam Pandangan Dunia: Isu-Isu Kontemporer dan Tren dalam Pendidikan. Al Ibtida: Jurnal Pendidikan Guru MI, 5(2), 231-248.

Kurdi, M. S. (2021). Realitas Virtual Dan Penelitian Pendidikan Dasar: Tren Saat Ini dan Arah Masa Depan. CENDEKIA: Jurnal Ilmu Sosial, Bahasa dan Pendidikan, 1(4), 60-85.

Kurdi, M. S. (2020). Meta Narasi Nilai-Nilai Responsif Gender Dalam Mata Pelajaran Fiqh Di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah. Jurnal Hawa: Studi Pengarus Utamaan Gender dan Anak, 2(2).

Kurdi, M. S. (2018). Evaluasi Implementasi Desain Pendidikan Karakter Berbasis Pendekatan Humanistik. Elementary: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Dasar, 4 (2), 125.



Krishnan, L. A., Jin, L., Stahl, A., Sreekumar, S., Sundaram, S., Subrahmanian, M., & Davis, P. (2022). Innovative Changes to Study Abroad: Virtual Intercultural Learning during the Pandemic. Teaching and Learning in Communication Sciences & Disorders, 6(2), 1.

Krishnan, L. A., Jin, L., & Calahan, C. A. (2021). Enhancing Intercultural Competence: Can it be done without Studying Abroad?. Teaching and Learning in Communication Sciences & Disorders, 5(2), 7.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American educational research journal, 32(3), 465-491.

Ladson‐Billings, G. (1995). But that's just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory into practice, 34(3), 159-165.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2014). Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: aka the remix. Harvard educational review, 84(1), 74-84.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Making mathematics meaningful in multicultural contexts. New directions for equity in mathematics education, 126-145.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2021). Culturally relevant pedagogy: Asking a different question. Teachers College Press.

Ladson-Billings, G., & Tate, W. F. (1995). Toward a critical race theory of education. Teachers college record, 97(1), 47-68.

Lane, R. M. (2022). An Ecology for Learning and Teaching: Integrating Education Science into Teacher’s Pedagogies using an adaptation of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Framework (Doctoral dissertation, ResearchSpace@ Auckland).

Lee, V. W., Hodgson, P., Chan, C. S., Fong, A., & Cheung, S. W. (2020). Optimising the learning process with immersive virtual reality and non-immersive virtual reality in an educational environment. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 14(1), 21-35.

Lekas, H. M., Pahl, K., & Fuller Lewis, C. (2020). Rethinking cultural competence: Shifting to cultural humility. Health services insights, 13, 1178632920970580.

Lindsey, R. B., Nuri-Robins, K., Terrell, R. D., & Lindsey, D. B. (2018). Cultural proficiency: A manual for school leaders. Corwin Press.

Livingstone, S. (2015). Critical reflections on the benefits of ICT in education. In Digital technologies in the lives of young people (pp. 9-24). Routledge.

Lombardi, M. M., & Oblinger, D. G. (2007). Authentic learning for the 21st century: An overview. Educause learning initiative, 1(2007), 1-12.

Markham, A., & Buchanan, E. (2012). Ethical decision-making and internet research: Version 2.0. recommendations from the AoIR ethics working committee. Available at: aoir. org/reports/ethics2. pdf.

Markowitz, D. M., Laha, R., Perone, B. P., Pea, R. D., & Bailenson, J. N. (2018). Immersive virtual reality field trips facilitate learning about climate change. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2364.

Martix, S., & Hodson, J. (2014). Teaching with infographics: practising new digital competencies and visual literacies.

Marwick, A. E., & Boyd, D. (2011, September). The drama! Teen conflict, gossip, and bullying in networked publics. In Teen Conflict, Gossip, and Bullying in Networked Publics (September 12, 2011). A Decade in Internet Time: Symposium on the Dynamics of the Internet and Society.

Mason, R. O. (2017). Four ethical issues of the information age. In Computer ethics (pp. 41-48). Routledge.

Mealha, Ó., Rehm, M., & Rebedea, T. (2022). Ludic, Co-design and Tools Supporting Smart Learning Ecosystems and Smart Education. Springer Singapore.

Meletiadou, E. (2022). Using educational digital storytelling to enhance multilingual students’ writing skills in higher education. IAFOR Journal of Education, 10(2), 111-130.

Merryfield, M. M. (2001). The paradoxes of teaching a multicultural education course online. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(4), 283-299.

Mitsikopoulou, B. (2020). Multimodal and Digital Literacies in the English Classroom: Interactive textbooks, open educational resources and a social platform. Multimodal and digital literacies in the English classroom: interactive textbooks, open educational resources and a social platform, 97-110.

Morse, M. L. (2021). Increase Engaged Student Learning Using Google Docs as a Discussion Platform. Teaching & Learning Inquiry, 9(2), n2.

Müller-Hartmann, A. (2000). The role of tasks in promoting intercultural learning in electronic learning networks.

Nakamura, L. (2007). Digitizing race: Visual cultures of the Internet (Vol. 23). U of Minnesota Press.

Nakamura, L. (2014). Gender and race online. Society and the Internet. How networks of information and communication are changing our lives. Oxford, 81-95.

Nakamura, L. (2008). Cyberrace. PMLA, 123(5), 1673-1682.

Nelson, S. W., & Guerra, P. L. (2014). Educator beliefs and cultural knowledge: Implications for school improvement efforts. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(1), 67-95.

O’Dowd, R. (2016). Emerging trends and new directions in telecollaborative learning. Calico journal, 33(3), 291-310.

Ono, K. A. (2011). Critical rhetorics of race (Vol. 12). NYU Press.

Onyema, E. M., Deborah, E. C., Alsayed, A. O., Noorulhasan, Q., & Sanober, S. (2019). Online discussion forum as a tool for interactive learning and communication. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(4), 4852-4859.

Penuel, W. R., Pasnik, S., Bates, L., Townsend, E., Gallagher, L. P., Llorente, C., & Hupert, N. (2009). Preschool Teachers Can Use a Media-Rich Curriculum to Prepare Low-Income Children for School Success: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Summative Evaluation of the" Ready to Learn Initiative". Education Development Center, Inc.

Phuntsog, N. (1999). The magic of culturally responsive pedagogy: In search of the genie's lamp in multicultural education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 97-111.

Pokrivcakova, S. (2019). Preparing teachers for the application of AI-powered technologies in foreign language education. Journal of Language and Cultural Education, 7(3), 135-153.

Preece, K. L. (2015). Social media platforms as educational interfaces-considering the way forward for blended learning. Enhancing the Learner Experience in Higher Education, 7(1), 15-28.

Rovai, A. P. (2007). Facilitating online discussions effectively. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(1), 77-88.

Saini, M. K., & Goel, N. (2019). How smart are smart classrooms? A review of smart classroom technologies. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 52(6), 1-28.

Salend, S. J. (2010). Creating inclusive classrooms. Pearson Education.

Setiawati, T., Kurdi, M. S., Kurdi, M. S., Ery, A. P., & Sarira, M. T. (2022). Strategi pembelajaran yang komunikatif berbasis media.

Smith, R., Ralston, N., & Gallegos, B. (2021). Integrating Culturally Responsive Pedagogy and Virtual Reality. Virtual and augmented reality in English language arts education, 225.

Srinivasan, R., Boast, R., Furner, J., & Becvar, K. M. (2009). Digital museums and diverse cultural knowledges: Moving past the traditional catalog. The information society, 25(4), 265-278.

Stepp-Greany, J. (2002). Student perceptions on language learning in a technological environment: Implications for the new millennium.

Takeuchi, L. M., & Levine, M. H. (2014). Learning in a Digital Age. Media and the Well-Being of Children and Adolescents, 20.

Tapalova, O., & Zhiyenbayeva, N. (2022). Artificial Intelligence in Education: AIEd for Personalised Learning Pathways. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 20(5), 639-653.

Taylor, S. V., & Sobel, D. M. (2011). Culturally responsive pedagogy: Teaching like our students' lives matter (Vol. 4). Brill.

Thorne, K. (2003). Blended learning: how to integrate online & traditional learning. Kogan Page Publishers.

Thorne, S. L. (2003). Artifacts and cultures-of-use in intercultural communication.

Thorne, S. L. (2010). The “intercultural turn” and language learning in the crucible of new media. Telecollaboration, 2, 139-164.

Tzuriel, D., & Tzuriel, D. (2021). The Socio-Cultural Theory of Vygotsky. Mediated Learning and Cognitive Modifiability, 53-66.

Turnbow, B. (2022). Leveraging Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy, Thought Partners, and Technology for Collective Efficacy in the Instrumental Music Classroom.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L. S., & Cole, M. (1978). Mind in society: Development of higher psychological processes. Harvard university press.

Vu, C. D. (2021). Developing an AI-powered, personalized learning system for EFL/ESL listening comprehension.

Wang, M. T., Henry, D. A., & Degol, J. L. (2020). A development-in-sociocultural-context perspective on the multiple pathways to youth's engagement in learning. In Advances in motivation science (Vol. 7, pp. 113-160). Elsevier.

Warschauer, M. (2010). New tools for teaching writing.

Warschauer, M., & Matuchniak, T. (2010). New technology and digital worlds: Analyzing evidence of equity in access, use, and outcomes. Review of research in education, 34(1), 179-225.

Warschauer, M. (2004). Technology and social inclusion: Rethinking the digital divide. MIT press.

Warschauer, M., & Meskill, C. (2013). Technology and second language teaching. In Handbook of undergraduate second language education (pp. 303-318). Routledge.

Warschauer, M. (2004). Technology and social inclusion: Rethinking the digital divide. MIT press.

Warschauer, M., & Matuchniak, T. (2010). New technology and digital worlds: Analyzing evidence of equity in access, use, and outcomes. Review of research in education, 34(1), 179-225.

Whitton, N. (2009). Learning with digital games: A practical guide to engaging students in higher education. Routledge.

Zed, M. (2008). Metode penelitian kepustakaan. Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

Zheng, B., & Warschauer, M. (2015). Participation, interaction, and academic achievement in an online discussion environment. Computers & Education, 84, 78-89.




How to Cite

Muqarramah Sulaiman Kurdi. (2023). The Role of Technology in Promoting Cultural Competence: A Comprehensive Review in Multicultural Education. The International Conference on Education, Social Sciences and Technology (ICESST), 2(2), 455–482.

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.